In order to screen for sperm production, a testicular biopsy entails removing a tiny piece of the testis. The seminiferous tubules in the testicles are where sperm production occurs. In the seminiferous tubules, germ cells go through 16 stages and 64 days to mature into sperm.
The doctor can check for the presence or absence of germ cells, sperms, and the development of the germ cells by evaluating the samples taken from the testicular biopsy. A healthy sperm may be collected and used in IVF and other assisted reproductive procedures if it is present.
Testicular biopsy is employed for
- the diagnosis of anomalies in the testicles.
- the root of infertility
- acquiring sperm for IVF.
- assess if a blockage interferes with sperm production.
A small bit of one or both testicles are taken during a testicular biopsy and analyzed by a urologist or fertility expert. When a patient’s FSH levels are normal, the biopsy procedure is typically utilized to determine the cause of infertility (Follicle-stimulating Hormone). Obstructive azoospermia in these patients cannot be distinguished from spermatogenesis problems or by spermogram testing.
The patient does not have testicular cancer and the sperm-producing organs are in good condition if the testicular biopsy results are normal. The patient, however, needs additional therapies if the test findings are abnormal and reveal tumors, azoospermia, or orchitis.
Purpose of testicular biopsies
- In addition to helping to extract sperm for use in IVF and other fertility treatment methods like IUI and ICSI, testicular biopsy is useful for diagnosing sperm issues like insufficiencies and illnesses.
- It should be noted that not all azoospermic patients require a biopsy test. If azoospermia is brought on by the absence of seminal vesicles on both sides, doctors will not do the biopsy test. A biopsy is performed at several sites on the testicle since sperm production differs depending on location. Today, the testicle is divided into four sections, and a testicular biopsy is performed on each portion.
- If healthy sperm are obtained during a testicular biopsy for IVF, the samples are frozen for future use. The sperms are frozen since the doctor might not be able to discover mature sperm in subsequent biopsies, and in certain situations, these samples are the sole sperm still available for the patient.
The testicular biopsy procedure is safe, but there are a few precautions that must be taken. Be honest with your doctor and let him know if you experience any bleeding issues, a reaction to any medications, or a sensitivity to anesthesia. Any other medications used during the course should be disclosed to your doctor in advance, along with the appropriate dosage. It is important to disclose any blood-thinning medications taken. Before beginning their method, don’t hide anything; else, the results might not be satisfactory.
Nowadays, many hospitals do testicular biopsy procedures but make sure you pick a reputable one.
One could become anxious about word-of-mouth publicity, so it’s best to discuss any questions you have with your doctor about the procedure, its results, and any potential adverse effects. Follow the doctor’s recommendations exactly. If a doctor instructs you to avoid eating and drinking for a period of time, do as instructed for an accurate diagnosis.
Don’t visit any doctor; only surgeons or physicians who specialize in treating male reproductive issues should perform testicular biopsies. After applying the sterility and anesthetic, the doctor makes a small incision on the scrotum, and the sperm is extracted from the wound. One stitch will be used to close the wound, and the procedure will be performed on the other testicle.
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